Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD):

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that usually appears in infancy, before the age of three. The severity and symptoms of this disorder vary from person to person, but all cases of autism affect children’s ability to communicate with others and develop social relationships.

Estimates suggest that 6 in 1000 children suffer from autism, and the number of diagnosed cases continues to increase. The exact cause of this increase is not known, whether it is due to improved detection and reporting efficiency or an actual increase in the rate of autism, or due to the effect of factors working together.

Although there is no specific treatment for autism, early treatment and intensive intervention have been shown to significantly improve the lives of affected children. The main challenge remains a better understanding of the causes of this disorder and improving ways to provide support and care for individuals affected by autism.


The main difficulties faced by autism patients:

Children with autism face severe difficulties in three main areas: social relationships, language, and behavior. As they grow older, they may show improvement in some aspects, becoming more capable of social interaction and adapting to their environment.

However, some may still have difficulties in language skills and social relationships even in adolescence, which can lead to exacerbation of behavioral problems. There is a diversity in the level of learning among these children, as some may be slow in acquiring skills, while others may show normal or even superior intelligence.

A small subset of children with autism may exhibit unique and exceptional self-features, such as outstanding skills in areas such as art, mathematics, or music.

Therefore, a deep understanding of autism requires providing individualized support based on the individual’s needs and skill level, helping to improve challenging aspects and embracing the unique talents that the individual with autism may possess.


Symptoms of autism:

Due to the variation in manifestations and symptoms of autism among patients, each child exhibits a completely unique response even with the same medical diagnosis. Two children with autism may behave in vastly different ways and have completely different skills.

In severe cases of autism, there is an absolute inability to communicate and establish mutual relationships with others. Symptoms of autism appear in infancy in most cases, but there are other children who may appear and develop normally before suddenly closing in on themselves or becoming hostile, losing the language skills they acquired.


Although each child suffers from unique aspects of autism and exhibits individual behaviors and patterns, the following symptoms are common in most cases:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that affects communication, social interaction, and behavior. It's called a "spectrum" disorder because it can manifest in a wide range of symptoms and severity levels, varying greatly from person to person. Some individuals with ASD may have mild symptoms and be able to function relatively well in society, while others may have more severe symptoms that significantly impair their ability to communicate, interact with others, and perform daily tasks.

Social skill disorders

Signs of social communication difficulties are clearly evident in those with autism:

– Not responding to their name being called.
– Little direct visual interaction.
– Not listening to others.
– Rejecting hugs or avoiding physical interaction.
– Not clearly understanding others’ feelings.
– Immersion in their own play and avoiding social interaction.

Language problems

Difficulties in speaking and understanding language appear in those with autism, including:

– Delay in starting to use speech compared to ordinary children.
– Losing words or sentences they previously knew.
– Using strange methods of communication, such as visual communication to request things.
– Repeating words or phrases without understanding their correct usage.
– Unable to start or continue conversations.

Behavioral problems

Behavioral problems in those with autism include the following:

– Repeating repetitive movements such as rocking or hand waving.
– Developing constant habits and rituals.
– Excessive sensitivity to changes in routine or environment.
– Hyperactivity and inability to calm down.
– Strange reactions to specific stimuli such as intense interest in rotating objects.
– Excessive sensitivity to noise, lights, or touch, but they may be insensitive to pain.
– Difficulty in sharing personal experiences with others, especially in young children.


Causes and risk factors for autism:

Autism, or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is a complex neurological condition that can present differently in each individual. Some common signs of autism may include: Social Difficulties-Communication Challenges-Repetitive Behaviors and Fixated Interests-Routines and Rituals

There is no single definitive cause of autism, but the disorder is considered the result of a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Here is an explanation of the possible causes and factors associated with autism:

Genetic abnormalities:

– The discovery of certain genes that may play a role in the development of autism.
– Some of these genes make the individual more susceptible to autism, while others affect brain growth and communication.

Environmental factors:

– Research focuses on the possibility of the effect of environmental factors, such as viral infections or environmental pollution, on the development of autism.
– Environmental factors interact with genetic factors to form a complex interaction that leads to autism.

Other factors:

– Problems during childbirth may play a role in the development of the disease.
– The role of the immune system and its effect on autism is subject to study.
– Some researchers suggest that damage to the amygdala in the brain may have an effect on the appearance of autism.


Treatment for autism:

So far, there is no definitive cure for autism, but there is a wide range of treatments and interventions available, used variably according to the needs and circumstances of each individual. Among these treatments:

1. Behavioral Therapy:

– Focuses on modifying behaviors and promoting positive behaviors.
– Includes techniques such as reinforcement, compensation, and self-created behavioral techniques.

2. Speech and Language Therapy:

– Aims to improve language and communication skills.
– May include speech training and improving non-verbal communication.

3. Educational Therapy:

– Focuses on encouraging social interaction and developing academic skills.
– Uses educational techniques for individuals with autism.

4. Drug Therapy:

– Used in some cases to deal with certain symptoms such as anxiety or depression.
– Drug therapy is determined based on the needs of each individual.

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